ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING (ADLs)

Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) is a term used in healthcare to refer to daily self-care activities within an individual’s place of residence, in outdoor environments, or both. Health professionals routinely refer to the ability or inability to perform ADLs as a measurement of the functional status of a person, particularly in regards to people with disabilities and the elderly.Two types of adl that is instrumental adl and basic adl. OT assess the skills needed to perform the adl task, and compare with present skills in the clients and help them to perform the adl at maximum independance, by using various techniques, trainings and also adaptations.

BASIC ADLs

  • Basic ADLs consist of self-care tasks, including
  • Personal hygiene and grooming
  • Dressing and undressing
  • Feeding oneself
  • Functional transfers, e.g. Getting out of bed
  • Voluntarily controlling urinary and fecal discharge
  • Elimination
  • Ambulation (Walking or using a wheelchair)

EVALUATION OF ADLs

There are several evaluation tools, such as the Katz ADL scale and the Lawton IADL scale.

Most models of health care service use ADL evaluations in their practice, including the medical (or institutional) models, such as the Roper-Logan-Tierney model of nursing, and the resident-centered models, such as the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE).

INSTRUMENTAL ADLs

Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are not necessary for fundamental functioning, but they let an individual live independently in a community

  • Housework
  • Meal Preparation
  • Taking medications
  • Managing money
  • Shopping for groceries or clothing
  • Telephone use
  • Using technology (as applicable)
  • Meal preparation and cleanup
  • Safety procedures and emergency responses

Occupational therapists often evaluate IADLs when completing patient assessments. Assessments may include 11 types of IADLs that are generally optional in nature and can be delegated to others

  • Care of others (including selecting and supervising caregivers)
  • Care of pets
  • Child rearing
  • Use of communication devices
  • Community mobility
  • Financial management
  • Health management and maintenance
  • Shopping